Expected effects of pay-per-use

A charge on car use is expected to lead to less car journeys, on total a lower travelled car distance and less congestion. This leads to fewer traffic accidents and better air quality. However, car ownership will probably increase leading among other things to a higher pressure on the scarce public space. These are all outcomes of an inventory of the possible effects of pay-per-use (PPU) conducted by the Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis (KiM).