Energy chains for carbon neutral mobility

A wind farm the size of the province of Utrecht would be needed to provide carbon neutral electricity for all current road vehicles in the Netherlands if these were to be battery-electric vehicles. Energy carriers such as hydrogen, synfuels and biofuels require much more space, but have specific advantages that are particularly important for long-distance shipping and aviation. This emerges from the study 'Energy chains for carbon neutral mobility' conducted by the Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis (KiM) and TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research).

*Update 20-10-2022: In the brochure (graphs on page 17 and 18) and in the background report (figure 6.6 and 6.7) the costs for fuel for fossil-ICE vehicles have been corrected.