Computer assisted web-interviewing with mixed-devices: a panel study perspective

Nowadays, respondents complete online surveys using smartphones, tablets or traditional devices. This presents
a challenge for longitudinal studies, as continuity is key. We addressed three issues related to this challenge: how
important are mobile respondents?; how to deal with mobile respondents?; and what are the effects of active
support for mobile response in surveys?. We used meta-analyses and state-of-the-art literature. Our results
revealed that one out of every three participants was a mobile device respondent in 2016. The profile of mobile
respondents partially adheres to the profiles of hard-to-reach candidates. Four design strategies for mixed-device
surveys are identified and discussed. By taking an active approach to mixed-device surveys, multiple issues
associated with mobile response can be overcome: differences in completion times and break-offs are
minimized. Mobile respondents appreciate redesigned surveys. In short, our results are in favor of facilitating
mobile respondents with an adaptive or responsive web design in longitudinal studies.